Its been an intense couple of days, with the whole draw of the fiscal cliff coming in and bringing about yet another depression since 2007. Luckily there was a plan put into place, last minute, until March when talks go in again on government spending. This whole problem left people like me frustrated. But what causes this frustration? It’s a lack of understanding in policy and decision making. So I decided to do extensive research on this subject matter. Hopefully shedding light in some factors, and educating myself in the process.
Public Policy and Social Policy are seen as similar policies, however they deal with different areas. Social Policy leads into Public Policy, how this works is the Administrative and Executive Branch of state deal with a class of affairs and controversies that seeks to be “dealt with”. Social Policy is the study to improve Basic Human Needs, this forms how other policies are influenced by the people. Policies such as crime, education, welfare, health, social security, unemployment, housing, environmental, social exclusion, justice, and etc. Social Policy focuses on issues regarding a better “Quality of Life”. These issues cover mortality rates, implementing better education to ensure better occupational outcomes, the risk factors in health care, ways to produce better jobs, tax issues, and etc. There are other social problems that are covered under social policy such as gay marriage, legalization of illegal substances, divorce, adoption, and etc. These policies are strongly influenced, not only by the masses of people, but the people in charge of policies. Who can be biased based on their powerful religious views, and upbringing. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ….”, also known as the separation of Church and State. However, people of the republican house, no matter how conservative, disregard the changing of modern times and stick to their highly religious and intolerant views. There are also many backdoor conversations that happen in some states regarding morality concerns, and there are also lots of monetary corruption happening. These are just some of the issues surrounding Social Policy.
Policy are rules, laws, regulations, and are basically guides for Governments, Private sectors, and unitary personnel to get to a common goal. Normally when policies are put into place they are for issues such as taxes, or to gain some type of benefit. You have your 4 different forms of policy:
Regulatory Policy: The policy that aims to control the behavior of individuals, policies in regards to speeding and crime.
Constituent Policy: The policy that aims to create a position to deal with laws, and in lesser situations deals with Fiscal Policy.
Distributive Policy: This is the distribution of goods and services to an organization members, things like social security, pension, health care, education, and etc.
Miscellaneous Policy: This particular part of policy is heavily mapped out by Social Policy. This often deals with many ideas, and organizational policies on various subjects under Social Policy as well.
In studying policy you have two cycles in order to successfully create one. The first one I am going over is the 5 stage cycle called the Stagist Approach, which is a guide to help us understand the complexity of policymaking:
- The Agenda: this step is to understand the issue that will be dealt with.
- Policy Formulation: where many groups of experts on the issue come together to write and to create a policy.
- Adoption: Where the options have been compared and weighed out in order to pass the policy.
- Implementations: After the policy has been put into effect, government officials become responsible for the implementation of the policy and to enforce it.
- Evaluation: This step is where the executives and other officials see the outcome of the policy and see it necessary to update of eradicate the policy placed.
The second approach to creating a policy was created by Peter Bridgman and Glyn Davis in their “The Australian Policy” handbook. It’s an 8 stage way to process a policy:
- Issue Identification
- Policy Analysis
- Policy Instrument Development
This 8 stage process takes a bit longer to process, but is seen as a classical approach to creating policy and not meant to be able to see a clear outcome of events.
Policies are always written and are seen as official documentation. They are consisted of a statement of purpose, the applicability of the policy which describes who it affects, the effective date, responsibilities section indicating who will be enforcing the policy, and the policy statement that describes the regulations and the behavior it’s going to control. In some circumstances a policy may have a historical segment to it regarding an incident that made the policy creation, and also definitions found in the policy to make sure there are no vague definitions/statements or misinterpretation of the policy.
This is just a short short essay on some policy, and I have already covered that there are many forms of Policy, more of which I will go into more greater detail. But I hope that I was able get people to understand how policies are put into place. And how we as a people can change and have policies created or eradicated.
Feel free to comment below, I’m sure there are some or many things I haven’t covered regarding policy. Thank You for Reading. Next I will cover Tax Policies.